There are lots of those used webcam modules from laptops, that you can get very cheaply. They usually contain a normal USB webcam. The only problem is that you have to figure out which pins are which.
So I did just that. Turns out, it's the standard order of the USB cable: black, green, white, red, except there are two ground (black) pins.
A photo of an USB cable soldered to one of those modules: